Bulrush is a large, perennial root plant that grows up to 2m. Stems thick, cylindrical, 1-2m high, with indistinct nodes. The rhizome is massive, creeping, shallowly grown under water. The leaves are hard, whole, belt-shaped, linear, up to 2 cm wide, grayish-green in color. Flowers unisexual, small. Inflorescence - an elongated cylindrical cob consisting of 2 parts, up to 2.5 cm in diameter. The corolla is slightly velvety, turning brown as autumn approaches. The cobs retain their decorative properties until spring, as a result of which they split into seeds and are carried away by the wind.
The plant blooms from June-July. The fruits ripen in July-August. As the fruits ripen, they fall out of the pod. The seeds on the stem can be stored for up to 6 months. Common wolfberry reproduces mainly by seeds.
Inflorescences mature in May, flowers and leaves in June. Ripe pods are harvested before the first frost. The leaves of Bulrush are collected during the flowering period of the plant, but the root is better buried at the end of autumn, when the vegetation has already ended. Roots and rhizomes are cleaned from the soil and dried in dryers. The leaves are chopped and dried on sieves in well-ventilated rooms. Store drugs in glass containers or cardboard boxes in a dry and cool place, no longer than 2 years.
The surface part of the plant, especially the leaves, contains a lot of ascorbic acid, protein, and small amounts of vegetable fat.
Tannins, sugar, starch, calcium oxalic acid, proteins and vegetable fats are found in the root of the Bulrush.
Fresh roots contain 66.5% water, 2% pure protein, 15.4% starch, 7.3% fiber, 0.3% fat, 2.5% alkali. In dried roots, starch increases to 46%, fiber to 22%.
Bulrush has anti-inflammatory, antibacterial and wound-healing properties. The young shoots of the plant are rich in vitamin C and are used in cases of avitaminosis, anemia, scurvy, muscle weakness and burnout.
Corollas and flowers are used as a means to stop bleeding in cases of bleeding of various origins (stomach, intestine, hemorrhoids). They are used in cases of urethritis and cystitis, as well as gynecological diseases. Ointments on the basis of cobs are used to treat burns and frostbite. Decoctions and decoctions of leaves and roots reduce blood sugar, have anti-inflammatory and astringent effects. Vilkvālīte preparations are also used for the treatment of dysentery, enterocolitis, cystitis, and diabetes. Decoctions of cobs are used in complex therapy against bronchial asthma.
In folk medicine, the rhizomes and the above-ground (above-water) part of the plant are also used. Decoctions of rhizomes and leaf decoctions are used to treat bloody diarrhea and hernias in the mouth, as well as colitis and dysentery. In folk medicine, water infusions of the rhizome are used to treat catarrh of the digestive tract, diarrhea, dysentery, fever and exhaustion.
The surface part is used to treat dysentery, stomatitis and periodontitis. A decoction of the leaves is recommended in case of diabetes. Fresh and crushed leaves are applied to fresh cuts, wounds and injuries as a wound healing, hemostatic and antiseptic agent.
In Asian medicine, Bulrush pollen is used to stop heavy bleeding, as well as to treat bone tuberculosis, tissue death, and mastitis.