Golden saxifrages is a perennial plant, it reaches an average height of 10-15 cm. The thin brown rhizome is strongly branched on all sides. The stem is erect, bare, the lower part is often covered with white or red hairs. The leaves are arranged in a root rosette. 1-3 small leaves are arranged alternately on the stem, closer to the inflorescence there are several whole leaves, which are arranged in a rosette and have a yellow tint. The rhizome leaves are light green, dull from the bottom, round-kidney-shaped with a deep heart-shaped base, split along the edge, into almost square parts, placed on long petioles. Stem leaves small on short petioles.
The plant begins to bloom in the middle of spring and blooms until the beginning of July. The inflorescence is shield-shaped, flat. The numerous yellow flowers are placed on short flower stalks - 1 mm long.
Fruit - a one-celled box in which shiny, black seeds develop. The plant reproduces with the help of seeds and vegetatively - moving with underground stolons, forming thick stands.
For medicinal purposes, the above-ground part of the plant is collected: young shoots, leaves and flowers. Poisonous substances have been found in the seeds of the Golden saxifrages , so they are not collected. The plant is harvested during its most active flowering period - until the seeds appear. The plants are spread on sieves, in a thin layer and dried in the shade, in a well-ventilated place. The drug is stored in paper bags for no longer than 2 years.
From a chemical point of view, the Golden saxifrages has been insufficiently studied and its research is still ongoing. However, it is known that the plant contains carbohydrates, leucoanthocyanidins (leucocyanidin, leucodelphinidin), organic acids, phenols and their derivatives, more precisely arbutin (0.56%), a large amount of ascorbic acid, trace elements: potassium, copper, boron, calcium, etc.
The complex of active substances of Golden saxifrages ensures the plant's astringent, anti-inflammatory, covering, immunostimulating and antimicrobial effects. By interacting with proteins, tannins form an impermeable layer, which protects mucous membranes from irritants. Tanning substances prevent the development of pathogenic organisms. The relatively high content of ascorbic acid gives the plant such properties as immune system stimulating, antimicrobial, expectorant and antipyretic. It is useful to use this plant in case of respiratory diseases - upper respiratory tract infections, bronchitis, flu.
In the experiments, it was determined that the extract of Golden saxifrages has an antibacterial effect, the juices are phytoncides.
The phenolic compounds contained in Golden saxifrages act as antiseptics, and also have diuretic, antispasmodic, choleretic and adaptogenic effects. Leukoanthocyanidins promote blood clotting - it can be safely used to heal wounds and prevent external bleeding. Glycosides and phytoncides stimulate heart activity.
In folk medicine, Golden saxifrages has been known since ancient times. From the above-ground part of the plant, various medicinals (mainly water decoctions) are prepared to treat colds, flu, bronchitis, upper respiratory tract catarrh. Due to the anti-inflammatory, choleretic and diuretic properties of the plant, its decoction is effective in the treatment of the spleen, liver, as well as to prevent kidney stones and urinary retention.
In folk medicine, yarrow is used to stimulate appetite, activate intestinal peristalsis and regulate stomach function. Alcohol extracts and water decoctions of the plant are used as sedatives in angina pectoris and other heart diseases. They will also help prevent dizziness.
Fenugreek is a body strengthening agent, it can be used after childbirth and long illnesses. Externally, the leaves of the plant apply to burns, wounds and ulcers, the plant has antiseptic, bleeding-stopping and anti-inflammatory properties.