Hyssop is a semi-shrub, 20-50 cm tall, in rare cases up to 80 cm. It has a strong, woody root and strong woody, four-sided, upright branches. The leaves are opposite, sessile, lanceolate with slightly bent leaf edges (2-4 cm long), the upper leaves are smaller. Small flowers, placed at the foot of the upper leaves in 3-7 pieces, often form inflorescences that are directed to one side.
The plant blooms from June to September, the fruits ripen from August.
The above-ground part of the plant (especially the tops of branches with flowers) is used for medicinal purposes. The plant is harvested at the beginning of the flowering period (late June and early July). The plant is dried in shady, well-ventilated rooms or forced dryers not exceeding 40C. The plant can be stored for an average of 2-3 years.
In good growing conditions, the plant tends to rebloom. After harvesting, it is recommended to fertilize the plant. The plant can also be used fresh throughout the summer, by cutting the necessary amount of branches from the plant, or by tearing only its leaves.
Hyssop contains essential oils (up to 1.15% in leaves, up to 1.98% in inflorescences); in flowers - flavonoids (diosmin, isopin); in the herb - triterpene acids (oleanol and ursulic acid), tannins and bitters, resins, gums, pigments. The composition of the essential oil includes: 1-pinocamphone, alpha pinene (1%), beta pinene 5%, cineole, camphene, 1-pinocampheol and its acetic ethers, sesquiterpenes. Various aromatic elements are also characteristic of the plant - alcohols, phenols, aldehydes and ketones.
Hyssop is rarely recognized as a medicinal plant in any country, but it occupies an important place in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases and as a valuable preventive agent.
Hyssop properties: antispasmodic, expectorant, wound healing, carminative, disinfectant. It also promotes better digestion, increases the secretion of gastric juice and promotes appetite. Increases the secretion of mucus in the upper respiratory tract, has weak urine-repellant properties. Reduces sweat!
In folk medicine, hyssop is used in the treatment of chronic upper respiratory tract diseases (bronchitis, tracheitis and laryngitis), bronchial asthma and digestive tract diseases. It is often used in wound care products.
Hyssop leaves and flowers are used to treat the gastrointestinal tract, anemia, neuroses, angina, excessive sweating, rheumatism, chronic colitis, flatulence. As well as an anti-worm, diuretic and mild tonic. Hyssop essential oil is used in cases of kidney stones, heart diseases, and respiratory tract inflammation.
Externally, decoctions and infusions of hyssop are used to rinse the eyes, also to rinse the oral cavity in cases of stomatitis, inflammation of the throat and loss of voice. Compresses can also be made from it in case of bruises, hematomas and eczema.