A perennial plant, which is usually 10-60 cm high, often exceeds this size. It has a strong root system. The stem is straight and leafy. The leaves of the plant are large - up to 30 cm in length, the flowers are small - 5 to 8 mm in size, usually white. Many flowers are collected in one inflorescence. The plant blooms in July and August.
The flowers of the Meadowsweet are used for medicinal purposes. Which are collected in the flowering phase by cutting the inflorescences without leaves. Dry in well-ventilated rooms on sieves or in dryers at a temperature not exceeding 40C.
Store dried Meadowsweet flowers in a well-closed glass or wooden container. Often, the roots and the above-ground part of the plant are also collected for medicinal purposes. The plant with the whole root is dug in late autumn or early spring. Separate the root, rinse in cold, running water and leave to dry. The leaves of the plant are collected in the same way as the flowers when they are in bloom. Roots are stored no longer than 3 years, flowers and leaves no longer than one year.
The effect of Meadowsweet is ensured by the presence of tannins, phenolic compounds (salicylic acid aldehyde), phenolcarbonic acids, catechins, flavonoids, and etheric substances. Meadowsweet flowers contain an average of 0.2-1.25% essential oil with a pronounced honey smell, which is due to salicylic acid aldehyde. By the way, aromatic aldehydes and complex essential substances are found in the essential oil: vanillin, benzaldehyde, heliotropin, 4-methoxybenzaldehyde, methyl salicylate, ethylbenzene, phenylethyl acetate, phenythyl and besil alcohols, as well as cineole and eucarvone, linalool, transanethole, geraniol, terpineol carvacrol.
The main components of the essential oils of evening primrose during flowering are methyl salicylate (28.2%), alpha terpineol (2.1%), salicylic aldehyde (2.8%), ionol (3.1%), hotrienol (6.2%), linalool (4.9%) and n-tricosane (8.3%).
Basic components of essential oils, during the fruiting period - salicylic aldehyde (12.4%), ionol (11.8%) and methyl salicylate (11.2%).
Aliphatic nitrogen-containing compounds (isobutylamine, isoamylamine), higher fatty acids (stearin and linolenic), hexanol, 6,10,14-trimethyl-2-pentadecane, 2-heptadecane, 2-nanodecane, methyl ether found in the surface part of the plant. . Phenolic acids (up to 5.5%), salicylic acid, gallic acid, ellagic acid, n-coumaric acid, anisic acid, vanillic acid were also found in the surface part; the presence of chlorogenic acid was also tentatively found in the flowers.
Various benzenes have been found throughout the plant: methyl salicylate and salicylic aldehyde. The content also contains phenol glycosides - gaulterin and spirein.
A whole series of phenolic compounds can be found in the plant: 1-methoxy-4benzene, phenethyl alcohol, veratrol, pyrocatechin, 2-methoxyphenol, 4-vinylphenol, anisaldehyde, n-methoxybenzol alcohol, 4-vinyl-2-methoxyphenol, pyrogallol, 4-hydroxy -3-methoxybenzaldehyde, benzyl benzoate, benzoic acid, 4-methoxybenzoic acid.
The flowers and leaves of Meadowsweet are a source of salicylates: isosalicin, helicin, methyl salicylate. Certain flavonoids (4.0-9.8%) are found in the plant: quercetin and its 5 glycosides (rutin, hyperoside, avicularin, spireoside, quercetin-3-glucuronide) and kaempferol-4-glucoside. It is indicated that spireoside is found more in flowers and fruits (3.5%), and hyperoside in leaves. The total flavonoid content is in flowers (6%), fruits (1-4%), leaves and stems (1%).
The plant also contains tanning substances (tannins), in a mixture with the group of pyrocatechins: in the leaves 13.3-35.5%, in the stems 3.26-13% and in the roots 11.8-39.5%. It has been determined that a higher content of tannins appears when the plant forms new shoots. The main antioxidant value of the plant has been determined to be produced by two ellagotannins.
All parts of the plant contain traces of coumarin, leucoanthocyanidins, catechins (2 times more in leaves than in flowers) and chalcones.
Triterpene compounds are obtained from the surface part of the plant: oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, as well as a polysaccharide complex consisting of water-soluble polysaccharides (galacturonans and arabinogalactans). The plant also contains pectin substances and A, B hemicellulose. Virigeze leaves contain 250-376 mg% of ascorbic acid, in addition, the leaves are an excellent carotenoid accumulator (beta carotene) - up to 157 mg%, in the flowers less - up to 57 mg%.
Diterpene compounds - spiramine and spiratin - are obtained from the seeds of the gorse. Their action is similar to camphor and caffeine, but their use does not cause an increase in arterial blood pressure. It is believed that spiramine helps to supply the brain with oxygen.
In pharmacology, the flowers of Meadowsweet are used as an anti-inflammatory, immune system stimulating, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, nootropic, adaptogenic and antihypoxic agent. The plant extract has a wide spectrum of pharmacological effects: strengthening, anti-carcinogenic, diuretic, hypoglycemic, sedative, anti-hemorrhoidal, antiseptic, bacteriostatic, antifungal, ulcer-caring, wound-healing, and also promotes granulation and epithelization in cases of trophic ulcers, burns, injuries.
It is used as a decoction due to its anti-inflammatory and astringent properties to treat various skin diseases (eczema, neurodermatitis). It is also used as a mouthwash to treat stomatitis, gingivitis, periodontitis.
The position of the Meadowsweet effectively liquefies the blood, lowers arterial blood pressure, and improves blood flow to the brain.
In folk medicine, flowers, roots and leaves of Meadowsweet are used. Meadowsweet flowers are used as a diuretic in nephritis, bladder diseases, gout, rheumatism, as well as diseases of the gastrointestinal tract, heart, hypertension, hernias, leukemia and as a hemostatic agent.
Meadowsweet flowers can be ground into a powder and used on babies for diaper rash. The flowers also have repellent properties - they repel flies, midges and mosquitoes, it is enough to rub with the flowers of the Meadowsweet and these insects will calm down.
Decoctions help treat bronchial asthma, bronchitis and pneumonia. A decoction of the root can be used to rinse festering wounds, treat "white flowers", enemas for diarrhea and as poultices to heal non-healing wounds, fistulas, ulcers and acne. Orally, a root decoction is used to treat joints, diabetes (including during pregnancy), thyroid gland and oncology. In the past, bitter gourd was also used in salads, soups and as one of the ingredients in everyday tea.
Used in mixtures to reduce frequent pollution.