common Evening-primrose


The biennial evening primrose, as already understood, is a biennial plant that often reaches a height of 1 m. Its root is fleshy and juicy 15 cm long. The stem is erect, covered with a little hair, densely covered with leaves, the plant grows only in the second year of its life. In the first year, only a thick rosette of leaves with elongated lanceolate leaves grows. The leaves of the stem are small, alternate, sessile, rarely toothed. The flowers are located in the inflorescence of compound spikes, large, symmetrical, consisting of four petals, bright yellow. They have a strong fragrance, open in the evening and bloom only for one night. Fruits - four-sided elongated pods with many seeds. The plant blooms throughout the summer and the first month of autumn, the fruits begin to appear starting from July.

For medicinal purposes, the above-ground part of the plant is collected, cutting it during flowering, in the evening. Flowers and first-year roots are often collected separately, digging them up in late autumn. The above-ground part is dried by haying the plants in bundles or on sieves, in the fresh air or in well-ventilated rooms, hidden from direct sunlight. Roots and rhizomes are used fresh.

Vegetable oil is obtained from the seeds of the biennial evening primrose. The seeds are collected in autumn, in the second year. Harvesting begins in summer and continues until autumn, harvesting takes place all the time because the plant ripens its fruits unevenly. The collected fruits are dried in fresh air or in forced dryers, not exceeding 50C temperature, then the seeds are removed from the boxes, if necessary, they can also be dried separately.

Evening primrose leaves contain tannins, flavonoids, anthocyanin, cetyl alcohol, triterpene saponins, ascorbic acid, phlobaphenes, pentosans, as well as tannins, resins, mucilages and other organic compounds. A yellow pigment has been found in the flowers, which has not yet been studied. Mucilage, sitosterol, gallic acid and invert sugars have been found in the roots. All parts of the plant contain beta-sitosterol.

The seeds of the plant contain a lot of vegetable oil - up to 24%, which contains gamma-linolenic acid (the substance that makes evening primrose oil so expensive and in demand), as well as tannins.

Medicinal significance

Evening primrose extract is used orally as an astringent in case of diarrhea. It can also be used to treat cough, spastic asthma and kidney stones. Aqueous extracts from the plant stimulate the stomach, liver and spleen. It is also useful in case of neuralgia of the heart.

Due to the content of various substances, evening primrose oil has medicinal properties that can be used for a wide variety of medical purposes. It is used orally to restore the elasticity of blood vessel walls, as well as to additionally strengthen them in case of cardiovascular diseases.

Often, women use evening primrose oil in an encapsulated form during PMS, although you should not count on this oil to relieve the condition, as it has a strong individual effect on each woman.

A decoction of biennial evening primrose leaves is used to stop severe diarrhea.

Evening primrose has a beneficial effect on the genital system, easing the condition of PMS, easing the climactic period, helping to prevent menstrual cycle disorders.

It has a beneficial effect on lipid metabolism, stimulates weight loss due to the fact that it accelerates the breakdown of triglycerides into fatty acids and glycerol, as well as perfectly prevents the manifestations and symptoms of hangover syndrome, reduces liver decomposition processes.

The leaves of the plant are used in tea to treat diarrhoea, and an alcohol extract is used for this purpose. This property of evening primrose is due to the tannins contained in it.

As a sedative, a decoction of evening primrose leaves is used in neuralgic heart diseases; in case of cough and bronchial asthma - as a spasm-relieving agent.

The decoction of evening primrose can be used to treat ulcers and as a rinse for angina and stomatitis. It is also used in dyspepsia, urinary stones, digestive tract and chronic weakness/exhaustion. The decoction is also used externally to rinse wounds, treat eczema, scabies and various types of rashes.

In case of pulmonary tuberculosis, a decoction of evening primrose roots is used, in case of nephritis, a decoction of flowers.

Not recommended for use

There are conflicting opinions about the use of biennial evening primrose during pregnancy and lactation. However, there are also studies and literature that mention that this plant can have an abortifacient effect, so it is recommended to give up this plant during this period. Since the plant has not been sufficiently studied, it is recommended not to give preparations of this plant to small children, because it is not known how safe it is!


Evening primrose oil can also be made at home: grind evening primrose seeds in a coffee grinder and pour linseed oil over them in a 1:2 ratio. Place it in a dark place for one month. After that, the obtained oil extract is used for 1 teaspoon, 2-3 times a day. Treatment course 2-3 weeks. The oil extract can also be used externally.

In case of severe diarrhea: pour 2 teaspoons of the drug with one glass of boiling water and let it infuse (maximum daily dose).

In case of lack of energy: pour 1/2 L of water over 10 g of the drug, boil on low heat, when the water starts to boil, cook for another 5 minutes and let the decoction steep for 30-40 minutes, then you can separate the thickets. Use on an empty stomach (as much as possible) or before meals for 1/3 cup per day.

In case of joint pain, spine problems and respiratory diseases: pour 5 grams of crushed, 1-year-old roots with 200 ml of boiling water, bring to a boil on low heat and boil for 4-5 minutes, let it rest for 2 hours, then separate the thickets. Take 2 tablespoons before meals, 4 times a day.

In case of diarrhea and intestinal spasms: pour 5 grams of leaves with 200 ml of boiling water, leave for 1 hour, separate the layers. Drink the obtained solution during the day, drinking in small portions.

In case of skin, kidney and heart diseases: pour 5g of the mixture of flowers and leaves with 300ml of boiling water, let it infuse for 3 hours, separate the layers. Take 1/3 cup, 30 minutes before meals, 3 times a day.

In case of heart and lung diseases, as well as as a diuretic: 10 grams of dry leaves are sprinkled with 100 ml of vodka, left in a dark place for 20 days, and the thickness is separated. Use 25-30 drops 3 times a day.

Alcoholic extract: 1 part plant, 5 parts brandy, leave for 20 days. Use 20-30 drops, 3-4 times a day, in case of diarrhea.

Directions: pour 2 teaspoons of the drug with 1 glass of boiling water. Drink during the day in small portions. To treat diarrhea. Do not use in case of epilepsy!

Two-year-old evening primrose also has side effects, but they have not been studied so far. Evening primrose oil should not be used in case of schizophrenia, as well as if you use epileptogenic preparations and of course in case of individual intolerance to the plant.

In case of psoriasis, use evening primrose oil only under the supervision of a doctor. In rare cases, but there are, nausea, weakness, and headache may occur when using preparations of biennial evening primrose.

Importance of food

The young leaves and roots of the plant are used as food. The plant is biennial, in the first year it forms a large rosette of leaves and a fleshy, white root. It is at this stage that the plant is also interesting to us. The roots are used fresh in salads or boiled. The leaves are basically only used in salads. But you can experiment!

Thanks to the oil in the seeds, it is also worth collecting the seeds and consuming them one teaspoon per day, mainly recommended for women. Seeds are collected in September-October from half-opened boxes.

The seeds should not be used by people with glaucoma or a tendency to it.