Yellow-cress morphology can vary greatly depending on the plant species. It is a plant that reaches up to 60 cm in height, it tends to be erect or creeping, usually bare, rarely hairy. The pages are arranged alternately. The flowers are arranged in shield-shaped inflorescences, the flowers can be from white to purple.
Cardamine pratensis L. has a short rhizome. The stem is erect, simple or weakly branched, grows up to 15-30 cm in height. The leaves are compound, 4 to 10 pairs, weakly hairy leaflets, elongated shape. The upper leaves of the stem have 2-3 pairs of linear, sessile leaves.
The flowers of the Yellow-cress are collected in inflorescences of 10-20 flowers, the inflorescence at the beginning of flowering is cyme-like, later it becomes more elongated. Petals 10-12mm long, white in color with purple veining. The fruits are multi-seeded pods, 4 cm long, placed on laterally inclined flower stalks.
Yellow-cress (Cardamine amara L.) has a long and creeping rhizome, bare or slightly hairy stem, up to 60 cm tall. The leaves are composed of 4-7 pairs of leaflets, which are cut into an oval or elongated shape with a toothed edge. The outer leaf has a petiole, and it also differs from the side leaves - longer and wider. Flowers in a craggy bunch at the top of the stem (a cyme-like inflorescence during flowering), usually 15 (rarely 6-30) flowers. Petals oval 3-4mm long. Petals white, sometimes pink.
The fruit is a multi-seeded pod, up to 4 cm long, the seeds are on average 1 mm in size, short oval, yellow-brown or red.
The above-ground part of the plant is harvested at the beginning of the flowering period (April-June). The plant is dried in the fresh air, in a shady place. Dried Yellow-cress can be stored for 1 year.
Yellow-cress leaves contain: ascorbic acid, essential oil, bitter substances and the glycoside cochlearin.
The substances in the above-ground part of Yellow-cress are equivalent to the composition of bitter sedge. A high content of vitamin C is mentioned separately, and this plant also contains thioglycoside and flavonoids: quercetin and kaempferol. Yellow-cress seeds contain 22-36% vegetable fat with <10% amino acids.
The medicinal properties of Yellow-cress are related to the vitamin C contained in it, which stimulates and strengthens the immune system, participates in many metabolic and oxidation processes, contributes to the normal functioning of glands, participates in blood production, strengthens blood vessels and improves the condition of connective tissues (joints and ligaments).
Flavonoids, which are present in the leaves of the plant, have a beneficial effect on the body's condition, enhance the activity of enzymes, and also participate in oxidation processes.
This plant has been known in folk medicine for several centuries.
Yellow-cress infusions are used to treat jaundice, edema, nervous diseases accompanied by seizures and convulsions. The plant can also be used to treat diabetes.
Decoctions of leaves and stems are used in cases of anemia, colds, and general weakness. Crushed leaves are used topically to treat and relieve pain in rheumatism. Fresh juice has choleretic, hematopoietic, anticonvulsant and diuretic properties.
In the Far East, Yellow-cress is popular and is used for toothaches (as a rinse), diabetes and STDs. In Siberia, the flowers of this plant are used to treat epilepsy in children.