Linden is an sumergreen tree, up to 30 m tall, with a large spherical crown. Tree trunks are strong, reaching up to 80 cm in diameter, covered with thick, scaly and dark bark. The leaves of the plant are heart-shaped, with rough edges and long legs.
The flowers are yellowish-white, fragrant, about 10mm in diameter, arranged like umbrellas in 3-15 pieces. Flower leaf leathery, light green, elongated lanceolate. Linden blooms in June-July. Fruits - nuts 4-8 mm in diameter, tuberous, covered with a woody-leathery shell, ripen in August.
The heart-shaped linden has fewer leaves, but has many more flowers than the broad-leaved linden - it blooms two weeks later and occurs more often.
Linden flowers and their petals (Tiliae flores) are used for medicinal purposes. The flowers are collected in dry weather when most of the flowers have opened. Under no circumstances should you pick damaged flowers, or while they are wet, after dew or after rain. Flowers are dried in well-ventilated rooms, attics, or in dryers, not exceeding a temperature of 45C. Flowers should not be dried in open sunlight, and drying should be relatively fast so that the drugs do not spoil.
Not only flowers are used for medicinal purposes, but also linden buds, leaves and rarely bark. Of course, lime blossom honey is widely used in medicine.
Buds are collected in spring, in dry weather, otherwise they lose their value when dried. You can dry in well-ventilated rooms or forced dryers. The bark is collected in early spring or late autumn, dried usually in dryers.
Linden flowers contain flavonoids (kaempferol, acacetin, afzelin, kaempferitrin, tilirosides, quercetin, gerbacetin, protoanthocyanid), glycosides gesperidin and tiliacin, ascorbic acid and carotene, essential oils (up to 0.05%), which consist of turpentine alcohol farnesol. The flowers also contain tannins, saponins, phenol carbonate acids, polysaccharides, mucilage, macro and micro elements. Lime fruits contain up to 60% vegetable fat. The leaves contain ascorbic acid, a lot of protein and carotene. Linden bark and wood contain tannins, triterpene compound tiliadin, vegetable oil (up to 8%).
Linden honey contains up to 20% water, 36% glucose, 40% levunose, fructose, vitamins, macro and micro elements. As well as the high maltose content of 6-8%, which is characteristic of linden honey.
Linden acts as a diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, bactericidal, emollient, antipyretic, and also has an expectorant effect. The setting of linden flowers mainly stops the exudative phase of inflammation, promoting a faster retreat of the inflammatory process from the nearby tissues.
Preparations of linden inflorescences increase diuresis, increase the secretion of gastric juice, increase bile production and facilitate the passage of bile into the duodenum, have a mild sedative effect on the central nervous system, slightly liquefy the blood, accelerate the regeneration processes and the formation of granulation tissue.
Water extract of linden flowers promotes the production of protective mucus, which contributes to the restoration of the protective barrier of the upper respiratory tract.
The medicinal properties of linden flowers are based on their flavonoid content - quercetin and kaempferol, which promote anti-inflammatory effects. Tiliacin has a phytoncide effect, has a repellent effect.
The sugars in linden honey are easily absorbed by the body without requiring additional energy consumption. The maltose in the product has a beneficial effect on the digestive system.
Since linden preparations enhance the function of sweat secretion, which is associated with the expansion of skin blood vessels, as well as the strengthening of heart contraction, this plant can conditionally be included in the group of preparations affecting the heart.
Liepzieds is one of the most popular in folk medicine, already ancient and in many countries. It is used as a strong diaphoretic, anti-inflammatory, diuretic, sedative, antipyretic and pain reliever. Decoctions or infusions of linden flowers are used to treat colds, headaches, fainting, and to gargle the throat in case of angina. After preparing the decoction or concentration, the remaining thickness can be used for compresses.
Tars obtained from wood are also often used to prepare various products that are used in skin care - against eczema, furunculosis.
Fresh, mashed leaves are applied to wounds and burns, and sometimes used as a choleretic. Linden wood charcoal is used for diarrhea and flatulence.
Fresh leaves and buds are also used externally as anti-inflammatory, pain-relieving and emollient agents (used locally). Lime seed powder is used to stop nosebleeds. Young bark of the tree, boiled, is used to treat rheumatism, burns, gout, as well as to prevent feverish pain in the digestive tract, it is provided by the mucilage contained in linden.
Lime flowers are taken orally to treat both labial and genital herpes, as well as to reduce excess weight.
Lime flowers can also be used by children from birth, observing the dosage.
Linden is also a noticeable plant in cosmetology, which mainly uses linden flowers and linden honey: honey masks and creams, compresses and applications, which are excellent for facial skin care. Rinses and baths to strengthen hair roots and reduce freckles. Essential oils of linden flowers are often found in various perfumery products.
Externally, a warm poultice of linden flowers is recommended as a compress to prevent wrinkles on the face and neck. You can also make steam baths from linden flowers to reduce the oiliness of the facial skin.