Field Horsetail is a perennial plant with a long, creeping rhizome and fine roots. In early spring, the plant forms unbranched, red-brown stems up to 25 cm tall, at the top of which is a spore cone. The spores mature in May, after which the stem dies and a barren, branched, green plant 30-60cm in height is formed. It has many branches, they are directed obliquely upwards. Leaves not developed. The summer green stems are rough, abrasive to the touch, this is due to the silicic acid crystals that form on it.
The above-ground part of the summer green plant is used for medicinal purposes. They are collected throughout the summer, quickly dried in the shade or in dryers, not exceeding a temperature of 40-50C.
The plant contains flavonoids (kaempferol, apigenin, saponaretin, naringenin, dihydrokaempferol, equisetrin, isoquercetin, luteolin); ascorbic acid (<0.2%), carotene, malic acid, aconitic acid, oxalic acid, sitosterol, tannins, alkaloids (nicotine, palustrine), silicic acid derivatives (<25%), vegetable fats, bitter substances, resins, macro and microelements.
Field Horsetail acts as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent.
In people with heart decompression diseases accompanied by edema, horsetail increases diuresis up to 2 times. The effect appears already in the first days of using the plant and continues for another 2-3 days after stopping the use of the plant.
When silicic acid breaks down in water, it forms salts that are easily absorbed in the digestive tract. In urine, silicic acid crystals form protective colloids that prevent the formation of crystals of other mineral components, preventing the formation of stones in the bladder.
For healthy people, this plant does not cause side effects, but long-term use can cause inflammation of the kidney parenchyma, so its use is not always safe.
Multiple studies have determined that horsetail also has bleeding-stopping and anti-inflammatory properties. Decoctions of black currant improve phosphorus-calcium metabolism.
The plant has detoxifying properties, it is able to remove lead from the body, therefore this plant can be used in cases of poisoning with this metal.
The plant is widely used in folk medicine. Decoctions from the plants are used in the treatment of lung and respiratory diseases, bladder diseases, internal bleeding, malaria, inflammation of the sciatic nerve, various forms of diabetes, heart failure, atherosclerosis and high arterial blood pressure. The properties of the plant are also used to treat gout and rheumatism.
In folk medicine, Field Horsetail is used in mixtures, which are also applied externally in case of ulcers and old wounds. Applications, compresses, baths are made from the settlement and fresh juice to treat abscesses, furuncles, ringworm, eczema, osteomyelitis, skin tuberculosis.
The juice of this plant can be mixed together with the juice of the Ground-elder and get an effective remedy to treat upper respiratory tract and bronchial diseases.
The plant is also used to suppress the vomiting reflex, which is useful in diarrhoea, dysentery, liver and gall bladder and bronchial diseases.