Pot Marigold - an annual plant, up to 50-60 cm tall, with a specific aroma. The root is columnar and branched. The stem is erect, branched, covered with hairs at the top. The leaves are inverted ovate, elongated, rosette-shaped at the root, sitting on the top of the stem, lanceolate. The flowers are golden-yellow or orange, collected in large (4-7cm diameter) inflorescences. The plant blooms from June until autumn frosts. Seed pods begin to ripen already in July.
Marigold flowers (Calendulae flores) are used for medicinal purposes. They start to be collected when the sharp flowering has started, both types of flowers are collected by simply plucking them off. During one season, you can harvest 10-20 blooming marigolds. Systematic and frequent harvesting produces new flowers on the plants. After twisting the flowers, they can be dried in an open, shady place, or in the attic, as well as in forced dryers, not exceeding a temperature of 40-45C. Drugs, tinctures of this plant are state-approved as a medical remedy. And in many European countries, where the whole plant is used, including the root.
Pot marigold flowers contain up to 3% carotenoids - carotene, rubixanthin, lycopene, citroxanthin, violoxanthin, flavochrome, flavoxanthin and others (15 compounds). In dark orange marigolds, carotenoids are found in 10 times higher concentrations than in marigolds with yellow flowers.
Likewise, paraffin-class hydrocarbons (gentriacontan and sitosterol), resins, triterpene glycosides, mucilage and bitter substances, organic acids (malic, salicylic), ascorbic acid have also been found in calendula flowers. Triterpene saponins - oleic acid glycosides, which are called calendins A, B, C, D, E, F, G, H, have been found in calendula extracts. In the roots and the surface part, the total amount of oleic acid ranges from 4-5%.
8 flavonoids (ramentin, isoramentin-3-glycoside, isoquercitrin and others) were found in the flowers of medicinal marigold. Their amount in the plant varies by species and population, on average 0.26-0.91%. Orange flowers with rough leaves are especially rich in flavonoids.
All parts of the plant also contain triterpene compounds: alcohols up to 5% and eleanic acid. Polysaccharides containing arabinose, galactose, glucose, rhamnose and xylose are obtained from the inflorescences of the plant.
Calendula flowers contain 0.05-0.2% essential oil, by the way, the essential oil in the calyx of the flower is up to 0.4%. A small amount of coumarins (scopoletin, umbelliferone and esculetin), resins (up to 3.44%) and tannins, mucilage (up to 2.5%), traces of alkaloids and trace elements have also been found in the inflorescences of the plant.
All parts of the plant contain sterols, especially in the leaves (up to 18%). Tocopherols and the bitter substance calendin are also obtained from the leaves.
Pot Marigold flower infusion acts as an anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and choleretic agent. Phytoncidal properties of the plant are provided by the essential oils contained in it.
Not taking into account that the bactericidal properties of the plant against streptococcal and staphylococcal bacteria are insignificant, but inflammatory processes that occur under the influence of bacteria are much easier, most likely, this is due to increased granulation, epithelization and increased local defense mechanisms.
Calendula flowers have antispasmodic properties. By relaxing the smooth muscles of organs such as the stomach, intestines, and liver, the plant also enhances secretion processes, which promote bile production, bile separation, and increased gastric secretion.
In the Department of Stomatology of Ukraine, Pot Marigold was studied with the aim of finding out whether it can be used to treat inflammatory-dystrophic periodontosis. Studies indicated that calendula alcohol infusions reduced inflammatory processes in the oral cavity, reduced gum bleeding. Helped to make the gum tissue denser, this was facilitated by the carotenoids and flavonoids in the plants, which have a capillary strengthening effect. More stable results were observed in complex treatment (vitamin therapy, physiotherapy).
Pot Marigold preparations also have a beneficial effect on diseases of the heart and blood vessels, which are accompanied by palpitations, weakness and edema. The plant strengthens the heart, removes or reduces edema.
Calendula infusion has a hypotensive and sedative effect. However, to have an effect, this infusion must be used long-term.
The use of the plant for the treatment of the gastrointestinal tract is justified by its high therapeutic effect on mucosal inflammation - dystrophic processes and parenchymatous tissues of internal organs. Good results are shown if chamomile and yarrow are additionally used.
The large amount of carotenoids, flavonoids, ascorbic acid and organic acids contained in calendula flowers promotes the metabolic function of the liver, during which the composition of bile improves, the bilirubin and cholesterol in it decreases, and secretory secretion functions increase. Combining Pot Marigold preparations with chamomile preparations improves the function of bile secretion, which prevents bile from being unnecessarily delayed in the gallbladder.
In folk medicine, this plant is used to treat the liver, gall bladder, spleen, stomach and break stones in the bladder.
In the folk medicine of many countries, calendula flowers are used to treat inflammatory and inflammatory processes in the oral cavity and throat, including periodontitis, skin diseases (eczema, furunculosis), mastitis, to fade pigmentation spots. Calendula is also recommended for neurasthenia and pathological climax.
It is worth mentioning that in many countries calendula is one of the plants that are attributed with an anti-cancer function. Which is not so unreasonable.
In mixtures, calendula is used to treat prostatic atony, infertility, impotence, frequent pollution, acute prostatitis, prostate cancer, premature ejaculation.