Greater Plantain is a perennial plant with a short, vertical taproot covered with countless small roots. The leaves of the plant are large, expanded ovoid, with 3-9 veins. The leaves form a rhizome rosette. The inflorescence is formed on a long cylindrical stem, 15-30 cm high. The flowers are small, brownish, inconspicuous, with a green basket. Fruit a two-part capsule containing 6-30 seeds. The plant blooms from May to September, the fruits ripen from August to October.
For medicinal purposes, the large leaves, as well as the ripe seeds and juice, are used. The leaves are collected at the moment when the plant blooms, cutting them with a knife. It is not allowed to cut all the specimens of the plant in the stands, because in this way you will destroy the entire stand. It is not acceptable to collect dirty, damaged or diseased plants. Plants are dried in well-ventilated and ventilated rooms on sieves or forced dryers, not exceeding 40-50C. Under favorable conditions, the plant can be harvested several times in one summer.
This plant is grown for medicinal purposes even in plantations - in Russia, France, Spain, USA.
The leaves of the plant contain up to 20% pectin. Pectinic acid, galactoarabinan, galactan are found in the polysaccharide complex. Plantain leaves contain flavonoids: luteopolin, apigenin, quercetin, scutellarein, hispidulin, baicalein, luteolin and its derivatives. Iridoid glycosides have also been found in the plant: aukubin (0.37%) and catalpol, saponins, coumarin esculin, bitter substances, tannins, steroid substances, traces of alkaloids; organic acids: benzoic acid, salicylic acid, ceric acid and others; phenolic acids: chlorogenic acid, cinnamic acid, paracoumaric acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid and others; amino acids, triazole, essential oil, phytoncides, vitamin K and C, B5, micro and macro elements.
The setting of the leaf of the Greater Plantain increases the secretion of the bronchial glands, creates a mucolytic, covering and anti-inflammatory effect, stimulates the secretion of bile and increases its acidity.
The water concentration of the plant increases the activity of the cilia of the respiratory tract epithelium, which increases the secretion of bronchial mucus, accordingly, the sputum dissolves and its output during coughing increases.
Clinical studies have proven that water decoctions of the kidney accelerate the healing processes of ulcers and wounds, reduce the formation of pus, promote granulation and epithelization. Ointments are often prepared on the basis of Greater Plantain , which has strong anti-inflammatory properties and promotes epithelialization and the prevention of scarring.
The extract of the leaves of the great celandine has a calming effect and even has a sleep-inducing effect, reduces arterial pressure, has blood-stopping, anti-inflammatory and bactericidal properties. Plant juice suppresses the development of pathogenic staphylococcus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and hemolytic streptococcus. The phytoncides present in the plant produce an antimicrobial effect.
When treating a gastric ulcer with reduced or normal content of gastric juice, preparations of Greater Plantain have a protective and antispasmodic effect. In patients, the content of gastric juice increases, its acidity increases, pain decreases or disappears, signs of dyspepsia, constipation and flatulence disappear, and spastic pain (cramps) of Greater Plantain decreases.
When using the juice of Greater Plantain , in case of chronic gastritis, pain and dyspeptic disorders disappear, appetite is restored, bowel movements are normalized, well-being improves, patients regain weight. The juice is also used to heal corneal injuries.
In folk medicine, the leaves of various species are used in crushed form to treat wounds, lacerations, bruises, burns and as an anti-inflammatory agent in case of insect bites. In case of inflammation of the eyes, rinse the eyes with the setting of large amount of water
Greater Plantain is considered an effective remedy in the case of disorders of the digestive organs: gastric catarrh with reduced acid content, acute gastritis, enterocolitis and gastric ulcers.