Scots pine - an evergreen, upright, coniferous tree that reaches an average height of 20-40m, with conical foliage for young plants and round foliage for mature plants, sometimes umbrella-shaped.
The bark is red-brown in color, deeply furrowed, yellowish in the branches and exfoliating. Buds are ovoid, pointed at the ends, on average 6-12 mm old, often resinous, covered with triangular-lanceolate red-brown scales with a transparent edge. The needles are covered in pairs, green, slightly curved, hard, 4-7 cm long, up to 2 mm wide with a pointed tip.
Blooms at the end of May - beginning of June. After pollination, new cones are formed, which mature within 18 months.
The average life span of a common pine is 350-400 years.
Buds, young cones, young shoots of needles, resinous juice and pollen are used for medicinal purposes.
The buds are collected from February to the end of March, until they begin to ripen. Harvest the buds that have not yet developed a scale. Cut with a sharp knife the entire crown of buds, usually from trees that are intended for felling. The crown of buds consists of one central bud and several side buds - new shoots (branches) will form from these buds, accordingly, when the pine is torn off the buds, the tree itself will be mutilated. One option is to collect the buds from the lower branches of a living pine, keeping the central bud. Dry in shaded, cool and dry rooms where the temperature does not rise above 20-25C. Spread the buds in a thin layer on paper or cloth. It is necessary to stir often. Under no circumstances should they be dried in ovens, as you will lose the resin. The obtained drugs can be stored for two years!
Pine sap is collected by making small incisions where the bark is artificially or naturally damaged. The resulting resinous juice solidifies quickly in contact with air, forming yellow lumps.
Pine buds contain a lot of essential oils, tannins, resins. In needles - essential oils, which include limonene, pinene, borneol, phytoncides, traces of alkaloids. The needles also contain resin, vitamin C, K, E, carotene, tannins and bitter substances. The resin sap has a high content of essential oils as well as resin acids. The seeds contain up to 20% edible vegetable fat.
Preparations of Scots pine buds promote secretion in the mucous membranes of the upper respiratory tract, thereby promoting the liquefaction of mucus in the bronchi, creating an expectorant effect. Preparations of pine buds also have a beneficial effect on the microflora of the oral cavity and adjacent nasal cavities.
In folk medicine, pine is used to treat bronchitis, pneumonia, bronchial asthma, pulmonary emphysema, respiratory infections, pulmonary tuberculosis and other respiratory diseases. It is often an ingredient in lung teas, baths and vitamin shakes.
Pine products are used for the treatment of kidneys, urinary tract - cystitis, renal colic, kidney stone disease. It is also used in the treatment of hemorrhoids, gastric and duodenal ulcers, hyperacid gastritis, cholecystitis, arthritis, stomatitis and periodontitis. It has long been used in folk medicine as a vitamin and anti-scurvy remedy. A decoction of the buds is used to treat edema, gout, problems with metabolic processes that cause various skin problems.
In Chinese medicine, pine resin is used as a single dose (0.5-2 gr. Orally), as an expectorant, diuretic and pain reliever.
Turpentine baths are also used as a general condition improver in case of rheumatism, arthritis, gout and salt deposition.