A perennial, bare plant, 60-120 cm tall, with a long, creeping and branched underground root, which forms many solitary daughter shoots. Root system fringed. Stems glabrous, leaves tight, sessile. Leaves 5-8 mm wide, green or greyish, the upper side is strongly grooved. The flowers are small, green, collected 4-7 in a shaft, forming long inflorescences - complex spikes.
Seed - grain. Blooms in June-July, seeds ripen in August-September.
It is best to collect the roots of the common Couch during the autumn or spring earthworks, because at this time they contain the most biologically active substances, and are also lifted from the soil in large quantities. Roots harvested in the spring before the stems and leaves have grown are of great value. When digging up the roots, they are cleaned of sand and the stems and leaves are cut off.
In anticipation of natural drying (under the sun), the roots are not washed, but only shaken off from the sand. Wash the roots if dried in forced dryers at a temperature of 50-55C. The dried mass is "rubbed" by hand, getting rid of the earth, small roots and leaf remains, then the rhizomes are picked. The obtained rhizomes are stored intact in well-sealed glass containers. The obtained drugs can be used for 2-3 years.
This plant needs to be properly looked after, as it easily becomes a feast for various barnyard pests.
The root of common Couch contains carbohydrates: triticin, mannitol (2.5-3%), levulose (3-4%); agroperin, glycovalin, as well as malic acid salts, proteins and mucilage substances, saponins, pectins, vegetable fats, essential oil, carotene, ascorbic acid, mineral salts. The most starch is in the rhizome of common Couch - up to 40%.
The root of common Couch and preparations based on it (depositions, decoctions, freshly squeezed juice) are recommended for early prevention or treatment of gallstones and bladder stones, and are also used as a diuretic to treat diseases of the biliary tract and urinary tract: cystitis, nephritis, urethritis, urinary incontinence, chronic urinary bladder infections.
The root of common Couch has light coating and light laxative properties, it can be effectively used preventively and to treat diseases of the liver, spleen and digestive tract (colitis, enteritis, cholecystitis, hepatitis, gastritis, gastric catarrh, etc.). The root also has strong expectorant properties, decoctions and infusions are used to treat lung, bronchial and various upper respiratory tract diseases accompanied by sputum production.
The rhizome and roots of common Couch have wound-healing and anti-inflammatory properties, they are used to treat skin diseases - liver, furunculosis, eczema, trophic ulcers, various types of dermatitis.
Preparations of common Couch contribute to the strengthening of blood vessel walls, purify the blood and reduce cholesterol levels, normalize arterial blood pressure, improve lipid exchange and metabolism.
Common Couch is used against skin allergic reactions, as an anti-inflammatory agent in scabies, as an anti-inflammatory and antipruritic agent in pyoderma, as well as in furunculosis, acne, viral skin diseases, hyperkeratosis, scleroderma and baldness. In case of furunculosis, a strong decoction of common Couch is very useful.
In folk medicine, this plant is used much more widely than in official medicine. In folk medicine, the root of this plant is used as a diuretic, anti-inflammatory, covering, mild laxative and metabolism-improving agent. In the form of decoctions, the root of the common Couch is used in liver, lung, kidney diseases, urinary incontinence, urethritis and cystitis. It is used against chest pain, against fever, jaundice, disturbed menstruation, breaking pain in bones.
The root juice of this herb is given to children to drink and added to baths to treat children's diathesis, furunculosis and eczema, especially in rickets.
Colds, bronchitis, problems with gallstones and bladder stones, and pneumonia are treated with the fresh juice of common Couch leaves.
Medicinal baths with common Couch are effective in case of various skin diseases, rashes, scrofula, hemorrhoids. If there is chronic constipation, enemas are made from this solution.
Decoctions of the dried rhizome of common Couch are used as an anti-inflammatory agent in the case of rheumatism, inflammation of the bladder, gout, jaundice and edema. This plant is an excellent remedy for diseases associated with salt metabolism disorders, metabolic arthritis and osteochondrosis.
Common Couch is used in mixtures for compresses for dry and tender skin with reduced resistance, as well as in case of pyoderma (used orally). Along with nettle, it is used to prevent premature baldness! Similarly, if your feet sweat profusely and have an unpleasant aroma, wear a sock filled with common Couch for the night.
Common Couch is also a favorite plant of dogs and cats - they eat it as an anthelmintic.