Yellow Iris is a perennial plant that grows to an average height of 80-120 cm. Stems flattened, weakly branched, on which up to 15 flowers develop. Root up to 2 cm in diameter, strong, creeping, branched, turns brown at the cut site. In the process of evolution, the stem has turned into a rhizome. The root of the yellow Iris is placed horizontally, so the new shoots also grow on the side. Due to the fact that the root of the yellow Iris branches, it takes over new and new territories.
The leaves are broadly linear, sword-shaped, wide, arranged in a root rosette, in appearance resembles a culm, can grow up to 2 m in length. The color of the leaves tends to vary from green to a greyish-blue shade. In late June - early July, the plant enters the flowering phase. Flowers begin to develop on long and thick flower stalks, which are collected in clusters of 3-8. Yellow Iris flowers have yellow petals and their lifespan is on average 3-5 days.
The fruit of the yellow Iris is a three-sided box, elongated-oval in shape with a short "nose" at the top. The seeds are large, shiny, ribbed, light or dark brown in color. A fruit seed pod usually contains up to 45 seeds. The seeds ripen in August. The seeds have air holes that keep the seed floating on the surface of the water until it reaches the shore and takes root. The plant reproduces by means of seeds and vegetatively. The plant is not demanding - it reproduces easily and quickly.
For medicinal purposes, the rhizomes of the yellow Iris are used, because its main, active substance (essential oil) is directly in the rhizome. Rhizomes are collected in the 3rd year of the plant's life, it is easier to determine when planting the plant yourself. Roots are dug at the end of summer - in September. The rhizomes are washed in running water and cleaned from the lateral roots. The rhizomes are cut lengthwise and dried - on sieves, in well-ventilated rooms, in the shade or in ovens at a temperature not exceeding 50C. The drug is stored in paper bags or a glass container. The root of the yellow Iris can be stored for 3 years.
Iris essential oil (<0.3%) has been found in the rhizome of the yellow Iris, the most valuable part of which is iron ketone. This ingredient gives toffee oil a violet aroma. When the root is harvested in the spring, it contains up to 42% iron. Apart from iron, the oil also contains geraniol, linalool, etc. This unique essential oil contains up to 140 different components. Acids (benzoic acid, myristic acid, lauric acid, oleic acid, undecyl acid, tridecyl acid), methyl esters, m-decyl, acetic, nonyl aldehydes, traces of phenols, furfural, mint-flavored ketone have been found in the oil. The rhizome also contains the isoflavone glycoside iridine, ~57% starch, vegetable fat (9.6%), organic acids, tannins, resins, mucilage. The leaves contain ascorbic acid (0.23%) and amino acids.
The rhizomes of the yellow Iris are used to treat inflammations of the upper respiratory tract, diseases of the digestive organs, urinary organs, thanks to the phenolic compounds present in the plant. Flavonoids strengthen the strength of capillary walls, normalizing blood pressure and heart muscle function. In addition, the plant also stimulates the function of the adrenal cortex. Coumarins have an antispasmodic effect, create antitumor and antimicrobial activity, tannic activity of the digestive tract. Isoflavonoids reduce sex hormone deficiency by regulating the amount of estrogen in the female body, which is important during menopause.
The root of the plant contains bitter substances that stimulate digestion and essential oil - a powerful antiseptic that can be used in throat diseases, angina, gastritis, pancreatitis, gastric colic, gallstones, stomach ulcers, and liver diseases.
This plant has been known in the people for a long time and is most often used as a remedy for mild diarrhea and expectoration. The root of the yellow Iris is used orally and externally, in the form of a decoction. Medicinal decoction of the rhizome of the yellow Iris helps to get rid of severe headaches, promotes the absorption of tumors, is used to treat bronchitis, angina, pneumonia, diseases of the spleen, pain in the digestive tract and some gynecological diseases.
A decoction of rhizomes is used to treat effusions and neurodermatitis. Crushed yellow Iris root is applied to damaged skin, festering wounds, fistulas and burns. You can also rinse your mouth with a decoction of the rhizome in case of toothache (an effective remedy). The mouth can also be rinsed to treat stomatitis and scurvy.
A poultice can also be prepared from the rhizome of the yellow Iris and can be used to reduce pigmentation spots on the skin. The root also has antioxidant properties, so it is valuable to wash the skin with its decoction, especially if you have dry skin or age wrinkles.
The root is also placed in red wine and the resulting extract is used to treat uterine bleeding. A decoction of the rhizome treats leucorrhoea and inflammation of the ovaries, using the decoction both orally and as a rinse.
Plant infusion helps to get rid of edema. It is also valuable to make extracts from the rhizome into oil, which is then applied topically to treat sciatic nerve inflammation, myositis and arthritis. With root treatment, dandruff is treated and hair roots are strengthened.